Login to your account. This research is based on dialogue. Information was collected about the way the plants of folk medicine are prepared. The interviewees were also invited to recite prayers and spells against helminthiasis.
Interest in these practises from ancestral heritage in an advanced country like Italy, is only relevant viermi teniasis the aim is to recoup a cultural viermi teniasis which is already in decline. He is not viermi teniasis except in kind and has been known to cure St.
The failure of the first healer is proof that he did not identify the reason for the onset of the illness. As regards helminthiasis specifically, it should be remembered that conventionally, it is a parasitosis due to which some part of the body is infested by worms. In general, helminths are found in the alimentary canal, but could viermi teniasis in other organs like the liver. However, it viermi teniasis that children on viermi teniasis diet of sweet food, milk, vegetables and dried fruit are exempt from the malady.
Some healers were men between seventy and eighty, except for one who was nearly a hundred! Various interviewees were asked about the use of plants, their local names and where they grew. They were also asked to recite prayers, songs viermi teniasis spells enacted to cure patients.
Some were transcripted directly as they were recited, others were filmed during the ritual. Originally, the viermi teniasis were in Sicilian dialect. In a case of treating helminthiasis in San Fratello with garlic and a spool thread, the prayer a-rrazzioni recited for the occasion see belowwas transcribed in the local dialect, according viermi teniasis phonetic and handwriting suggestions viermi teniasis a local healer.
Since most patients prefer ritualised viermi teniasis at home, we were guests there. Viermi teniasis diagnostic process in most cases was based on questioning the patient about their symptoms and careful attention to descriptive detail. If the illness was physically manifested like in dermatitis, a wound, a mycosis or other, the healer accurately examined the infected area viermi teniasis the location and symptom type, the period of onset, and its possible regression or reappearance.
The accompanying administration of phyto-remedies, decoctions, infusions or other folk medicine preparations were also carefully monitored. All the corresponding dialect, common and scientific names are reported in the index. The results http://yfonob.chatnook.com/merg-la-viermi-om-pisica.php this research have highlighted how folk beliefs regarding the fascinating study of folk medicine and herbal practises connected with apotropaic therapeutic rituals still viermi teniasis a part today in the cultural heredity of the areas under study and, passed on viermi teniasis word of mouth, still survive in the rural habitat in farming areas.
Healers are not be paid in money at risk of losing their powers but only in kind if offered. To better understand the healer or worms charmer in dialect of the previous paragraph it would be opportune to make a brief digression.
A scare fright, jitters etc. In the course viermi teniasis the interviews it became evident viermi teniasis worms charmers receive ample viermi teniasis from the society in viermi teniasis they operate; generally they are women and all the more believable because they are of that venerable age which carries with it viermi teniasis much more experience. They are so integrated into daily life viermi teniasis they are known by affectionate monikers: Viermi teniasis Maria a-zza MariddaMrs.
It was also noted that many worms charmer practises could be carried out by cognoscenti but that when the ailment was particularly serious requiring a more personalised therapy the expert healer is always called in. When worms are suspected a small coffee cup whose rim has been coated with garlic and oil is placed rim-down on the patients navel: if the cup cicaredda sticks the patient has worms. After communion, he paid his penance by having three handfuls of blessed olive leaves and three of palm leaves and a sip of water.
After the Via Crucis and other orations, the neo-healer went into the countryside, found a thistle viermi teniasis a white worm on it, pulled it out by the roots and rubbed it over both hands. Baptism upon birth is said to confer strength as well as extraordinary powers on whom has had a risky birth. Its suddenness and unexpectedness could be due to many things.
Its negative effects do not end once the fright is over but can persist to be unleashed later in viermi teniasis pathological reaction, even madness and viermi teniasis death. Since childhood helminthiasis is also linked to fright, it is a very dangerous illness. According to popular belief, as soon as the child is born and before his first bath, it is opportune for his little hand to squash a fly or earthworm in the presence of a good viermi teniasis who recites an viermi teniasis prayer to render him immune to intestinal parasites.
The massage and palpations allow the healer to verify if parasites are present, if they are viermi teniasis or in groups, and their position in the intestine. Furthermore, by means of these repetitive movements which require delicate contact with the patient, the healer can help relax the patient which is essential in this type of ritual healing.
Viermi teniasis can be sung softly or like a rhythmic lullaby which, together with the massage, helps the viermi teniasis relax and become self-confident thus acquiring viermi teniasis wellbeing. According to some sources, also from Villarosa, charming worms must be handed down from man to man, or woman to woman or from man to woman or vice versa.
As we know, whoever learns the art of charmer cannot exercise it if his teacher is still living. This variation is due to the fact that in the past Villarosa was home to various ethnic viermi teniasis from neighbouring areas eg. Sperlinga, Ganci, Alimena who brought with them these changes to the original. The interviewees often emphasised that worm charming was not an easy job: whoever does it must have faith.
The hand should remain closed until Good Friday. Then, in May on the night of a full moon, he should go viermi teniasis the countryside, find learn more here thistle caterpillar, rub it between his hands, then have his hands bound by the spell-sayer, and lastly have the remains of the caterpillar pushed in between his hands.
Three days later, the hands unbound, the subject now has the power to heal others from worms. The practise of the ritual above is said to be still operative today around Sperlinga and Valguarnera as well as Castel di Lucio and Gangi even though the incantations differ in content but not objective. It is said that spells are also cast in Ispica, Acicatena, Prizzi, Partinico, San Biagio Platani, Noto, Tortorici and Mistretta.
It is reported that unusually stomach worms can climb up through the stomach and oesophagus and into the bronchi during sleep where they later cause abscesses or gangrene. Then, he lists the saint days see Villarosa spell above to which are attributed please click for source therapeutic value not only in Sicily.
In the spell above, simply listing the parts of the body in which worms may lurk testifies to the popular belief that parasites are ubiquitous which explains the commitment required to carry out the cuts. These must be numerous given the most viermi teniasis places in which worms may lurk.
Viermi teniasis cuts in this click here many other spells are repeated ten times because ten viermi teniasis the perfect number. Various sources affirmed that sciatica, cephalea and St. The latter is still cast out today in Belpasso on the slopes of Etna. In click at this page Nebrodi mountains, and viermi teniasis is still believed today, newborn babies and viermi teniasis small children can suffocate if the parasites climb the respiratory tract.
Sometimes — as happened more often in the past in the days of paraffin viermi teniasis — they dip a finger in the paraffin rubbing it on the viermi teniasis, stomach, armpits, soles and behind the ears so that its intense odour crushes the parasites. If the person is afflicted the fingertip to fingertip distance will be greater than their height.
This ritual must be repeated on three consecutive days or three times in one day: in the morning, at dusk and again the following morning before the sun is high because it is believed the sun excites the illness stimulating the movement viermi teniasis the parasites.
The ritual is carried out with garlic, oil, water and viermi teniasis thread. Firstly, the garlic is chopped up and put in a glass of water. Another thread is cut to measure the child from head to foot.
Viermi teniasis both threads are taken, knotted together and wound around the index finger and thumb of her own hand. The wound thread represents the entanglement of the worms.
They are then removed from the hand, cut up as though cutting the worms and placed viermi teniasis one finger into the water with garlic. If a thread immersed in the water remains straight there are no worms; if they curl up and intertwist viermi teniasis indicates how viermi teniasis worms are present.
Every viermi teniasis a day of the week is cited, a piece of linen thread is dropped into the water. Should the illness be viermi teniasis, the linen threads should be cut up and burnt. After treatment, the healer asserts that the child will heal soon. Other healers we contacted said they use the same therapy with some small variations.
In any case, the prayer must remain absolutely secret and the ashes must be dissolved in some liquid more info the patient must drink. It has already been said that in the Viermi teniasis area, cirmata casting spells still goes on today as it does in other municipalities of Catania and Enna, and that it is known as the vermu tagghiarinu o tagghiarina tape worm. From the text of this spell, there is first a description of the escalation of the illness and then, thanks to supernatural intervention, its gradual remission.
There are many tapeworm species: among the most common which infect man are Tenia solium whose intermediate viermi teniasis are wild boar and pigs, viermi teniasis T. In the viermi teniasis countries the incidence of this parasite is much lower than in the past, given that health click to see more hygiene norms are considerably higher.
The remedies prescribed viermi teniasis vary with the gravity of the symptoms. However, generally speaking different herbs, leaves, tree or shrub twigs, various tubers, heated oil and wine are used. Some women who are not necessarily expert healers and occasionally incapable of carrying out rituals or spells but who are usually related to the child, use coffee either ground or in beans. For viermi teniasis coffee, the dose is a viermi teniasis which the child must smell on the morning of the day when he will be treated for worms.
For bean coffee, the beans need viermi teniasis be crushed viermi teniasis finely to release their stimulating and therapeutic effect. As soon viermi teniasis the clove viermi teniasis is knotted in viermi teniasis go here healer recites a prayer.
In the above mentioned municipality of Villarosa today, getting rid of worms requires a peeled garlic clove placed on a plate or table. To one side, half a centimetre of oil should be put in a small cup or sufficient to wet the thumb. At this point in our viermi teniasis, it would be opportune to parallel Sicilian therapy with those in Sardinia.
The most usual therapy provides for the use of garlic in different ways viermi teniasis principally pulped, diluted in a glass of water, and given to drink to the child patient or viermi teniasis by enema. A Sardinian lady suggested it was also beneficial to just smell the garlic because as soon as the worms perceive viermi teniasis odour viermi teniasis tend to exit the anus.
A decoction of this last herb given every now and again completely healed the son of another female source who had been close to death from parasitosis ever since he was a small child. One day, this viermi teniasis had Simptomele de viermi în ochi fresh chickpeas and, following them with a coffee noted that viermi teniasis worms no longer bothered him. Repeating the same experiment the next day — a lot of fresh chickpeas followed by coffee — and not feeling any pain at all, he noticed that later on he defecated four enormous worms.
Apart from the above-mentioned therapies, the patient could have: breathed in viermi teniasis vapour of boiling milk which would have helped him vomit the worms; chewed cheese keeping it in the mouth for a while, then spat it out and drank a glass of wine.
Attracted by the wine, the worms would have been killed by it and then defecated. A female informant said it was sufficient to sing a song unidentified and according to another the brebus had to be recited which are the ritual words closely see more to u cirmu the charm carried out in Sicily.
Managing the formula was the prerogative of the user or holder alone; it could not be passed on reliably if not viermi teniasis a younger person who could only then use it successfully after the death of whomever had passed it to him. The formula was only made known to whomsoever needed it. Since the tapeworm is greedy for milk, it would have come out to drink. At that point the patient would have had to be ready to grab the worm and extract it decisively. Even after a full meal, the patient had to drink a lot of milk.
To be sure of expulsion, it would have been helpful to eat bread and onions, or else a lot of garlic. Following this suggestion, the worm was extracted and taken away by the Doctor in a bottle. On the subject of here intestinal parasites from the mouth, this writer remembers that as a child, one of her elementary school assistants said that one evening one of her young relatives had suffered from stomach pains and a troublesome feeling of nausea.
Each prayer is repeated three times although Glory to the Father is often not said. Afterwards, a prayer specific to the viermi teniasis is recited either three or nine times depending on the healer. During the ritual, the ailment is firstly presented to a higher entity the Holy Trinity, a Goddess like the Madonna, or a natural symbol like a rainbow. Then, Christ, the Saints or other male spirits are invoked who finally suggest a cure. This seaweed is commonly dried and sold by the roadside and was used in a particular way.
In the Modica area, simienza di viermi a. In the Caltagirone area, near the Borgo di San Pietro St. The healer who cast this spell addressed a real prayer to the rosemary asking it, in the name of God, to give up its God-given powers: its antiseptic properties. Permeating with the powers of viermi teniasis healer, these properties succeeded in finding and beating the parasites in the child. Perhaps of old, before or after having cast the spell, a rosemary decoction was given to the suffering child or some sprigs were burnt to viermi teniasis his room.
This latter was probably the preferred tactic both because of its effectiveness and because it was more suitable for babies. Other vermicide species were used in stomach poultices stumacali since they possessed special organoleptic characteristics which, according to our sources, made them unbearable to worms amongst which was rue Ruta chalepensisaruta containing glands which secreted strongly aromatic essences used in the Ragusa area for http://yfonob.chatnook.com/photo-viermi-cine-e.php capacity to ward away worms.
The patient must chew the leaves; mint can also be given as an infusion after macerating in hot water. Others viermi teniasis the area said they generally used the juices viermi teniasis cooked leaves or a decoction of snow thistle Sonchus oleraceus ; cardeddaa plant with tonic and cholagogic properties. In that area, rue is esteemed for a number of other therapeutic properties as viermi teniasis proverb testifies: " A marva ti sarva e a-rruta ppi ogni autru mali " mallow saves you and rue is for every other ailment.
Even today, the pitcher plant is used as viermi teniasis peptic to calm stomach pains and other gastric problems. Their flowers can be crumbled and repeatedly sniffed which apparently soothed abdominal colic.
Furthermore, after being soaked at length in hot water, the pitcher plant, according to a local source, was given to eat to whining children picciriddi siddusi. In this ritual, the vine shoot represents the worm and also the force to eradicate it.
Quite a similar procedure for curing worms in young patients was recently discovered in the province of Catania in an Etna viermi teniasis which once had extensive vineyards. With the fruit of this plant, the rose hip which contains small seeds, a laxative herbal tea was prepared; the galls which viermi teniasis on the branches are both tonic and astringent and can make an antispasmic decoction.
The use of medicinal plants is often indispensable during healing ceremonies, but the spells, prayers and invocations of sacred beings also play a fundamental role. Often, during the ritual, the healer submissively recites or sings delicate prayers dedicating himself to other activities like gently massaging the patient or waving herbs about or rubbing them on the painful area. A good example of this came out of some research in Casalvecchio Siculo.
For example, patients suffering from worms are usually young children brought to the healer by their mothers or grandmothers. It would seem that helminthiasis in particular is diagnosed when the parasites viermi teniasis discovered in the faeces. These worms are thought to invade the whole body, moving around from intestines to heart to throat.
To treat them, the healer uses scissors to make symbolic cuts on the abdomen in the form of crosses. Nowadays, interest viermi teniasis ancestral folk medicine in a civilised country like Italy only makes sense if the end is to recoup a cultural heritage that may be in irreversible decline.
In reality, the reinforcement viermi teniasis industrial culture and the weakening of folk culture is increasingly the case, although it is still possible to find people in many areas who resort to traditional medical therapies. Such practices, fruit of the obsolete logic of an agricultural and pastoral society, might today seem primitive but they deserve respect and should be examined and re-evaluated from a medico-anthropological and socio-cultural point of view.
Hospitals and clinics too, evermore highly equipped, with ever greater availability of specialised drugs, have lead the vanguard in the belief that empirical medicine was no longer necessary to eradicate many diseases among which the various intestinal parasites.
Notwithstanding, it is important to note that magico-medical viermi teniasis persist from an anthropological-medical point-of-view above all considering this discipline as pivotal to a socio-anthropological interpretation of the viermi teniasis act as a total viermi teniasis relationship.
Every clinical deed depends viermi teniasis twofold subjectivity — doctor-patient. When this relationship goes through a crisis the patient distances himself from the doctor in search of alternative solutions of the most diverse origin ideological, psychological, socio-cultural, religious, magical-talismanic. In the past, the doctor-patient approach was typically reciprocally discrete. Today, however, conditions are ripe for medical dialogue with the aim of viermi teniasis diagnostic and therapeutic effects.
From viermi teniasis medico-anthropological point of view, the persistence of viermi teniasis practises and rituals cited in this work may be due to the fact that medicine often communicates with its public without decoding its technical-scientific language making it often incomprehensible. Alphabetic list of the sicilian dialect denominations of named species and their corresponding popular and scientific names: in brackets, the botanical family and eventual synonyms.
Addaurubay: Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae ; agghiugarlic: Viermi teniasis sativum L. Alliaceae ; aina picciriddacorn cockle: Agrostemma githago L. Decât viermi otravă câini ; alivuolive tree: Olea europaea Viermi teniasis. Asteraceae ]; canfuriddawild chamomile: Achillea ligustica All.
Moraceae ; cipuddaonion: Allium cepa L. Corallinaceae, Rhodophyta ; erva di vermi or erva atanasiatansy: Tanacetum vulgare L. Asteraceae ; erva-iancawormwood tree: Artemisia arborescens Vaill. Asteraceae ; erva pucciddanagreen purslane, purslane Portulaca oleracea Viermi teniasis. Onagraceae ; viermi teniasis atirio, lady fern: Athyrium filix-foemina L.
Scott Aspidiaceae ; frastunacawild carrot: Daucus carota L. Apiaceae ; fraularadamascens nigella, love in a mist: Nigella damascena L. Savi Viermi teniasis ]; panicaudusnakeroot eryngo: Eryngium campestre L. Clusiaceae ; puddisinuparsley: Petroselinum sativum Hoffm. Viermi teniasis Apiaceae ; rrosamarinurosemary: Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiaceae ; rrosa viermi teniasisdog rose: Rosa canina L. Rosaceae ; simienza di viermi or cabbarrasistavesacre: Delphinium staphysagria L.
Swingle Simaroubaceae ; tamaredduspanish viermi teniasis [ Viermi teniasis capitatus L. Chenopodiaceae ; vitivine: Vitis vinifera L. Andrea Pieroni viermi teniasis Division of Pharmacy Practice — University of Bradford UK for the numerous and precious suggestions given; - Prof.
Salvatore Brullo — Department of Botany at the University of Catania, for data concerning the Modica area; - Prof. Paola Calabrese, Curator of the "Museo della Memoria di Villa Lucrezia" Etnoantropological Museum of Customs and Traditions of the Sicilian center region for data regarding the Villarosa area and the so called "mano santa" holy hand.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This viermi teniasis an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License yfonob.chatnook.comwhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in viermi teniasis medium, provided the original work viermi teniasis properly cited. Download ePub By continuing to viermi teniasis this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions viermi teniasis, Privacy.
This is alluded to in the following spell from Ragusa county:. The spell continues in the usual way more or less similar to the one in Villarosa :. And so on nominating various parts of the body in which worms are cut away:. At the end the healer viermi teniasis. Acknowledgements The Author warmly thanks: -Prof. Quad Botanica Ambientale Appl. Le "Erbe dello scongiuro". Google Scholar Napoli M: Indagine sul significato magico-apotropaico di alcuni vegetali in Sicilia: le piante utilizzate nella tradizione popolare contro le "fatture" e il malocchio.
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Edited by: Gottschalk-Batschkus CE, Green JC. Google Scholar Bonomo G: Scongiuri del popolo siciliano. Dinamiche culturali e scontri di classe. Dinamiche, Operatori, Practiche Empiriche e Terapie Magiche.
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Torino Google Viermi teniasis Proserpio G: Il nuovo Codex vegetabilis. I maghi e i ciarmavermi. Google Scholar Guarrera PM: Usi e tradizioni della flora italiana. Quaderni del Museo del fiore. Google Viermi teniasis Cappellani S: Il "Mauru" ossia alghe rosse commestibili nella Sicilia centro-orientale.
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